Qualification: ITI, Diploma in Web Design and Graphics
Area of interest:
- Heat transfer
- Fluid flow
- Thermal Engineering
- Heat and mass transfer
- Compressible flow
- Fluid mechanics
- Rajesh T.N., J. Sarvoththama Jothi, Jayachandran T., (2020) “Performance analysis of a vortex chamber under non-reacting and reacting conditions, Sådhanå (2020) 45:43, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-020-1271-1
- T. N.Rajesh, T.J. Sarvoththama Jothi, Jayachandran T., (2019) ” Preliminary Studies on Non-Reactive Flow Vortex Cooling “, Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering,12, DOI: 10.2174/2212797612666190510115403
- Naduvilethil R.T., Jegathjothi S.J.T., Thankappan J, 2018, Hot test studies in a spark ignited vortex combustion chamber, Chemical Energy Transactions, 71, 1345-1350, DOI: 10.3303/CET1871225.
- Rajesh T.N., J. Sarvoththama Jothi, Jayachandran T., (2018) ” Cold flow studies in a vortex thrust chamber”, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, https://doi.org/10.1108/AEAT-07-2017-0167.
- T. N. Rajesh, T.J.S. Jothi and T. Jayachandran,“Cold flow investigation of flow behavior in a vortex combustion cold wall”, in Proceedings of the 42nd National Conference on FMFP, December 14-16 2015, Paper No. 235, Suratkal, NITK.
- T. N. Rajesh, T. Jayachandran and T.J.S. Jothi,“Studies on vortex cooling of a combustion chamber”,in Proceedings of the 44th National conference on FMFP, December 14-16, 2017, Paper No. 123, Amrita University, Amritapuri Campus, Kollam, Kerala.
- T. N. Rajesh, T.J.S. Jothi, and T. Jayachandran, “Analysis of Vortex Combustion Cold Wall Chamber”,in proceedings of 1st International ISHMT-ASTFE Heat and Mass Transfer Conference,IHMTC 2015, Paper No. 969, December 17-19, 2015, ISRO, India.
- N. Rajesh, T.J.S. Jothi and T. Jayachandran,“Analysis of Vortex Combustion Cold Wall Chamber”,in proceedings of the 2th International Conference on Thermal, Energy and Environment, 2016,Paper No. 8, March 25-26,Kalasalingam University, Tamilnadu, India.
- T. N. Rajesh, T.J.S. Jothi and T. Jayachandran,“Experimental and numerical analysis of cold flow behavior in a vortex combustion chamber”, in proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Approaches in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, June 15-2017, Paper No. 6,Trinity college of Engineering, Trivandrum, India.
- Teaching: 10 years
- Research: PhD
- Industry: nil
Area of interest:
CAD, CAM, Mechatronics
- Remil, G.T., Manu, R., 2016 “Automatic Feature Recognition based Fixture Design for Prismatic Components” proceedings of 6th International All India Manufacturing Technology Design and Research Conference (AIMTDR) held at College of Engineering Pune, 16-18 Dec, pp. 795-798.
- Remil, G.T., Anirudh, M.V., Deepak, L.K., Manu, R., 2016 “Fixture Design based on Automatic Feature Recognition” proceedings of International Conference on Design and Manufacturing (IConDM2016) held at Indian Institute of Information Technology Kancheepuram, 16-17 Dec, pp. 133-137.
- Ranjith.H and Remil George Thomas, “Deformation control of work piece fixture system by optimization of clamping forces and locator configuration”, National conference on Futuristic technologies, pp- 61-66, 2014.
Professional Memberships: LM ISTE
Teaching: 17 Years
- Composite Materials
- Machine Design
- Honey comb Structures
- Production and Industrial Engineering
- P. Mohan and R. R. Kumar, “An Analytical Approach for Large Size Optimised Reinforced Hole in Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells,” in 71st International Astronautical Congress (IAC) – The Cyber Space Edition, 12-14 October 2020.
- P. Mohan and R. R. Kumar, “A Non-Singular Anlytical Technique for Reinforced Non-Circular Holes in Orthotropic Laminate,” Int. J. of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, pp. 92-105, 2020.
- P. Mohan and R. R. Kumar, “Stresses in Orthotropic Circular Cylindrical Shells with Large Size Reinforced Holes – A Fourier Series Approach,” Composites: Mechanics, Computations, Applications: An International Journal , p. 10(4):299–309 , 2019.
- P. Mohan and R. R. Kumar, An Analytical Approach for the Design of Reinforced Circular Hole in a Composite Shell, ICAISET 19, 2019.
- Pradeep M., R. Ramesh Kumar, “Analytical Prediction of Full Field Stress Distribution in Orthotropic Shell with Reinforced Hole”, ICCE 25, Rome, Italy, 2017
- Prakash I L, Pradeep M, “Reduction in Stress Concentration of Pin Loaded Holes on Composite Plates”, proceedings of National Conference on Futuristic Technologies in Mechanical Engineering NCFT -2015, Thiruvananthapuram
- Jibin Jacob, Pradeep M, “Kinematic Analysis of Universal Joint and Proposition for Compliant Universal Joint”, proceedings of National Conference on Futuristic Technologies in Mechanical Engineering NCFT -2015, Thiruvananthapuram
- Aaron G Johns, Arun Mohan Alenchery, Rajin Raju Sachin John, Stephen Mathew and M Pradeep, “Improving Performance of Fiat 118ne Engine & Hydraulic Loading Unit”, MBCET Journal of Research, Volume 3/ November 2014, ISSN 2277-4645.
- Pradeep M. & Dileeplal J., “Analysis of the effect of variation of process parameters in a turning operation”, National Conference on intelligent control and instrumentation, 2006
- Pradeep M. & Dileeplal J., “Statistical analysis and process performance studies for a typical machining process”, National Conference on intelligent control and instrumentation, 2006
- Life member of ISTE
- Member of Indian Society of Mechanical Engineers
- Teaching: 15 Years
Area of interest:
- Energy management
- M learning
- Supply chain Management
- Operation research and Industrial engineering applications
- Logistics Management
- Nature Inspired Algorithm and Optimization
- Disassembly and Eco design
- Pedagogy and New learning methods.
- Education research etc
- Supply chain modeling under carbon trading. Nidhi MB and V. Madhusudanan Pillai. IGI Global 2018.DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5424-0.ch016
- Nidhi M. B, Chandra Vadhana R, Nimitha Aboobaker, Do men and women
react differently to MeToo stories in Social media? – A study on Gender, Gender role orientation and Perfectionist Self –Presentation style, International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews,Volume,6,Issue,2, Pages745-757
- Nidhi M.B. Rohit Radhakrishnan, Vaisakh.V, Self Reliance: A Context of Sustaining Indian Automobile Industry, IEI – Technical Volume of the 35th Indian Engineering Congress with ISBN 978-81-950662-0-9, 18-20 Dec 2020. (Best paper awarded 2020).
- Dr. Nidhi M.B, Salma Asraff, Vaibhav.K,, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mar Baselios College, Quantitative analysis of indoor air quality, Pg 43, proceedings of International Conference on Energy and Environment (ICEE 2021). Jyoti Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala, April 09-10, 2021.
- Nidhi M B , Abhilash Suryan, Disruptions in Engineering Education: Perceptions of Mid-Career Academicians, Elsevier Computer science Proceedia year of publication – 2020.
- M.B.Nidhi, V.Madhusudanan Pillai, 2019, Product disposal penalty: Analysing carbon sensitive sustainable supply chains, Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 128, February 2019, Pages 8-23.(Impact factor:3.195, as on Dec 2018 5-year impact factor is 3.44).
- Nidhi M.B and Rejoy James, 14-16 Dec 2018, Ergonomic assessment and Design of Chair for workers in the electronic testing unit of a healthcare industry, HWWE 2018, CET, Trivandrum. (student won the springer young researcher award – undergraduate category)
- Nidhi M B and V. Madhusudanan Pillai, (2018), Supply Chain Modeling Under Carbon Trading, Emerging applications in supply chains for sustainable business development, IGI Global USA, pp-282-299.
- Nidhi M B , Sai Ganesh VM,“Integrating marketing strategies with supply chain strategies in using AHP”, 11th ISDSI International Conference to be held at the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India during December 28-30, 2017
- Nidhi.M.B, Sam John Abraham, Integrating Internet-of-Things technology into a perishable product supply chain using AHP: A case study, IIIE -POMS Conference, 20-22 Dec 2016.
- Nidhi M B , Sai Ganesh VM, Productivity Study In Small Scale Industry, 57th National Convention of IIIE and International conference on Smart Strategies for Digital World – Industrial Engineering Perspective, Nagpur, 21-22 Oct 2016.
- Alen John , Nidhi M.B. “Modelling and Analysis of an Automotive Bumper Used for a Low Passenger Vehicle”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V15(7),344-353 Sep 2014. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group.5. Alen John, Nidhi M.B, Modelling and Finite Element Analysis of Automotive Bumper under Static Loading, National Conference On Advances In Mechanical Engineering (AIME ’14), Department of Mechanical Engineering, SNM Institute of Management and Technology, Maliankara P.O.,Moothakunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, 5th March 2014 , pp.9-13.
- Alen John, Nidhi M.B , Impact Analysis on the Bumper used for a Low Passenger Vehicle, National Conference On Futuristic Technologies In Mechanical Engineering (NCFT 14), Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala , 22nd & 23rd August 2014.
- Anoop Chandran, Nidhi M B, and V Madhusudanan Pillai, (2013), Sustainability Assessment of Blood Bag Supply Chain: A Case Study, IEEE-GHTC-SAS, 23rd and 24th August, 2013.
- Anoop Chandran, Nidhi M B, and V Madhusudanan Pillai, (2013), Modelling of Closed-loop Supply Chain Under the Emission Trading Scheme, AIMS, 6-9th Jan 2013.
- Abhisek. N, Nidhi M B, and V Madhusudanan Pillai, (2012), Carbon Assessment model for Supply chain network, Book of Abstracts and proceedings International Conference on Green Technologies, (ICGT’12), pp 88-89. 18-20th Dec, In association with IEEE and jointly organized by Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, India and University of Dayton ,USA.
- Nidhi M B and B Anil, A Cost Optimization Strategy for a Single Warehouse Multi- Distributor Vehicle Routing System in Stochastic Scenario, IJLSM -2011 , Vol.10, No.1, pp-110-121.
- Nidhi M B and V. Madhusudanan Pillai, (2011) Development of Green Supply Chain Transformation Matrix from Environment Management System, pp. 68 – 73, Proceedings of the National Conference on Emerging Trends in Industrial Engineering and Management (ETRIM2011), July 11-12, 2011, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Calicut, Kerala, India.
- Nidhi M B and B Anil, 2011, Trash to Treasure : Experiences with Post-consumer PET Bottles, 23rd Kerala Science Congress, Book of Abstracts-pp 125.
- Nidhi M B and B Anil, 2011, Green Supply Chain Management : A conceptual framework, NATCON , CET Jan 2011.
- Joe L Bovas, Nidhi M B, Aravind James, Akshay Kannan (2010), Coconut Oil Biodiesel: Possibilities as a Green Fuel for Ecological Hot Spot Areas in Kerala.
- B Anil, Nidhi M B, A Simulation based study on the influence of Goodwill Factor in Supply Chain Management, Dec 1-3, 2009, International conference on Modeling an simulation organized by CET and AMSE, pp-279-282.
- Nidhi.M.B., Green Supply chain and Logistics Management: A Review, March 2009, National Conference on Advanced Processing Technologies, SCTCE.
- B Anil , Nidhi M B, 2009, LPG Distribution Planning Using Simulation And Ant Colony Optimisation, March 2009, National Conference on Soft Computing by IRTT, pp 60-66.
- Nidhi.M.B and B. Anil; (2008), Fleet size Optimisation for Single Depot Multi-Distributor system, to be presented in 8th National Conference on Technological Trends, November 20-23, College of Engineering, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
- B.Anil and Nidhi.M.B; (2008), A simulation model using rule based logistics: case study at an LPG distribution plant, Presented in the International conference on Digital Factory, August 11-13, Coimbatore.
- Brahmanandan Anil and Nidhi.M.B; (2008), Management in Logistics Networks and Nodes, Concepts, Technology and Applications, Erich Schmidt Verlag.
- Nidhi.M.B; (2007), Simulation Model for Distribution System Planning at LPG plant, Presented in Silver Jubilee National Seminar, Trivandrum chapter of Indian institution of industrial-engineering, December 2, Kerala.
- M. B. Nidhi and V. Madhusudanan Pillai , Development of a parametric matrix based on GSCM literature , International Journal of Accounting, Growing Science, Available Online: April, 2016, DOI:10.5267/j.ac.2016.4.004, http://growingscience.com/ac/online.html
- Nidhi M B, V. Madhusudanan Pillai, Comparing the cost of subcontracting and trading option to assess carbon footprint across supply chain, Industrial Engineering and Operations Managment conference, KL,Malaysia 8-10 th March 2016.
- Nidhi M. B, Arun Harindran, “Study of Design Parameters of a Coronary Stent Based on Poly-L-Lactide (PLLA)”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), V28(5),260-268 October 2015. ISSN:2231-5381. www.ijettjournal.org. published by seventh sense research group
- Nidhi M B, Arun Harindran, “Study of Design Parameters of a Coronory Tent Based on Poly-L-Lactide(PLLA)”, National Conference on Innovative Approaches in Manufacturing and Design-IAMD’15, 25th July 2015, pp 52-59, Organised by Trinity College of Engineering, Trivandrum, Kerala.
- Nidhi M B and B Anil, Active Learning: An Approach to Improve Student Retention and Achievement, 25 th Annual Convention ISTE, Souvenir pp-60-66, Theme: “Strengthening Technical Education for Sustainable Development”, Jyothi College of Engineering, Cheruthurithy, Thrissur on 25th October 2014. [Won Best Paper ]
2. Nidhi M B and B Anil, New Paradigms in Engineering Teacher Training , 24 th Annual Convention ISTE, Souvenir pp-53-57, Theme: “Challenges and Opportunities in Technical Education, Research and Innovation in the Digital world”, Heera College of Engg., Trivandrum on 16th November 2013.
3. Nidhi M B, B Anil and V Madhusudanan Pillai, Technical Education Quality Model: A holistic approach, 23rd Annual Convention ISTE, Souvenir pp-43-54, Theme of conventions ‘Innovative Approaches in Technical Education’ , SSM Polytechnic college, 17th November 2012, Tirur.
4. Nidhi M B and B Anil, M Learning : Dealing with Myths, Reluctance and Realities, “Growth of Engineering Education: Issues and Concerns, 22nd Annual Convention , Vidya Academy of Science and Technology, Thrissur, 19th November 2011, ( Best Paper Award). .
5. Nidhi M B and B Anil, Challenges faced by Technical Education in the Energy-Climate Era, Souvenir of 21st Annual State Convention of ISTE, pp-63-67. Theme of convention: “Innovative Practices for Excellence in Engineering Education” at SJCET Palai. Won the Best Paper Award, 20th Nov 2010
6. Nidhi M B, 2009, Soft Skills : A boon to enhance Employability, Souvenir of 20th Annual Convention of ISTE, pp-109-111. Theme of convention: Managing Technical education for Leveraging Innovation and Entrepreneurship.
7. Ms Nidhi MB and Dr Arun surendran A framework for Entrepreneurship Development in Engineering Education, First Indian Engineering Deans Council Global Submit on “Engineering Education – current Scenario & Future prospects”, 31st july – 1st August 2015, GRT Grand convention center, chennai, Souvenier pp 52.
8. Nidhi M B and B Anil, Empathy aligned CSR framework for Engineering education First Indian Engineering Deans Council Global Submit on “Engineering Education – current Scenario & Future prospects”, 31st July – 1st August 2015, GRT Grand convention center, Chennai, Souvenier page 46,
9. Nidhi M B and B Anil, Framework for Institutional Social Responsibility in Technical Education, 44th Annual National Convention ISTE, Souvenir pp-262- 267, Theme: “Shaping Technical Education to meet challenges beyond 2020”, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Thiruvananthapuram during 27-29th November 2014.
- Received the Best Faculty Advisor award of ISTE Kerala section from Hon.Governor of Kerala on the occasion of 31st ISTE Annual Faculty Convention of ISTE dated 23 Jan 2021.
- Received the best paper award from 35th Indian Engineering congress by IEI (india) on the paper Self Reliance: A context of Sustaining Indian Automobile Industry, dated 18 Dec 2020. The student co authors are Mr Rohit Radha krishnan and Mr Vaisakh, students of seventh semester Mechanical Engineering.
- She has won the ISTE Calcutta convention National award for the Best paper presented in the national convention during 2018 for her paper on “Enablers to concoct graduates Industry 4.0 ready”, at 48thAnnual National Convention of ISTE at VTU Belagavi, Karnataka, 19-20 March 2018.
- Conferred Fellowship from IIIE at SVNIT, Surat, dated 6thDEC 2019 on the occasion of IIIE Annual National Convention.
- Conferred the National award for Substantial contributions in Industrial Engineering instituted by IIIE, received at Nagpur, on 22nd Oct 201
- ISTE – Life member, (National Executive council member, News letter in charge Kerala Section)
- IIIE – Executive member 2009 , (Jt secretary Trivandrum chapter during 2015-2017)
- Teaching: 13 years
- Research: 4
- Industry: 4
- Invited Lectures: 20
Area of interest:
- Mechanical Vibrations
Publications in peer reviewed journals
- Vinod V, Bipin Balaram, M.D. Narayanan, Mihir Sen, Effect of oscillator and initial condition differences on the dynamics on a ring of dissipatively coupled van der Pol oscillators, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Springer, 29(5), 1931-1939, 2015.
- Vinod V, Bipin Balaram, M.D. Narayanan, Mihir Sen, Effect of configuration symmetry on synchronization in a van der Pol ring with nonlocal interactions, Nonlinear Dynamics, Springer, 89(3), 2103-2114, 2017.
- Vinod V, Bipin Balaram, M.D. Narayanan, Mihir Sen, Mutual synchronization of dissipatively coupled limit cycle oscillators in a ring, 8th Conference on Nonlinear Systems and Dynamics, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, 2013.
- Vinod V, Bipin Balaram, M.D. Narayanan, Mihir Sen, An initial condition dependent oscillation control in an odd and even number van der Pol ring., 10th Conference on Nonlinear Systems and Dynamics, IISER, Kolkata, 2016.
- Deepak B S, Hari Venkit, Vinod V, Effect of forcing frequency on mutually coupled Van Der Pol oscillators, Dynamic Days Asia Pacific 08, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, 2014.
- Teaching: 12 years
- Research: 8 years
- Industry: nil
Area of interest
- Composite Materials
- Hari Venkit, K.S. Sajikumar, “Design and Analysis of Blade Stiffened Shells for PSLV”, 8th National Conference on Technological Trends, NCTT ’07, College of Engineering, Trivandrum.
- Hari Venkit, K.S. Sajikumar, “Analysis of Interstage Components of Satellite Launch Vehicles Using Stiffened CFRP Shells”, 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Material Processing Technology, (RAMPT’09), Pages 285-291, Feb 25-27, 2009, National Engg College, Kovilpatti.
- Hari Venkit, “Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AZ91D Reinforced with TiC”, 1st International Conference on Green Technologies (ICGT’12), Pages 335-339, Dec 18-20, 2012, Mar Baselios College of Engineering & Technology, Trivandrum.
- Arun Sasi, Hari Venkit, “Effect of Surface Crack in a Composite Homogeneous Steel Cantilever Beam by FEM”, International Conference on Innovations in Design and Manufacturing (iDeM’14), Pages 48-55, Jan 10-11, 2014, Mar Athanasius College of Engineering, Kerala
- Deepak B.S., Hari Venkit, Vinod V., “Effect of Forcing Frequency on Mutually Coupled Van der Pol Oscillators, 5th National Conference on Dynamic Days Asia-Pacific 14, DDAP ’14, held at IIT Chennai.
- Arun Sasi, Hari Venkit, “Parametric Study and Optimized Investigation of Wear Analysis in AZ91D Alloy using Experimental Method”, 1st National Conference in Futuristic Technologies , (NCFT’14), Pages 203-206, Aug 22-23, 2014, Mar Baselios College of Engineering & Technology, Trivandrum.
- Deepak B.S., Hari Venkit, Vinod V., “A Case Study on Synchronization in Coupled Nonlinear Frequency Detuned Systems”, 1st National Conference in Futuristic Technologies , (NCFT’14), Pages 5-8, Aug 22-23, 2014, Mar Baselios College of Engineering & Technology, Trivandrum.
- Arath E.S., Hari Venkit, “Whirl Speed Prediction of a Rotor System on Bearing using FEM”, National Conference on Research Innovation, in Thermal & Mechanical Engineering, (NCRITME’17), Pages 95-97, January 12-13, 2017, College of Engineering, Adoor.
- Rohit R. Raj, Hari Venkit, “ PID based Active Vibration Control in Quarter –Bus Model using Simulink”, National Conference on Research Innovation, in Thermal & Mechanical Engineering, (NCRITME’17), Pages 157-160, January 12-13, 2017, College of Engineering, Adoor.
- Nithin N. S., Hari Venkit, “Investigation of Wear Analysis of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Reinforced with TiC and BN”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Vol-28, No-5, 2015, Pages 236 –
- Yadu K. Nair, Hari Venkit, “Comparative Study of Piezo Patch and Accelerometer Responses in Modal Parameter Estimation”, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), Vol-2, Issue-11, 2016, Pages 78 – 83.
- ISTE – LM – 73154
- IAENG – LM – 143306
- Teaching : 17 Years
- Industry : 2 Years
Area of interest:
- Supply chain management
- Optimization techniques
- Teaching: 11 years
- Industry: 4 years
Area of interest:
- Mechanical Vibration,
- Engineering optimization,
- Mechanics and Dynamics of machinery
- Premchand V.P., M. D. Narayanan and A. S. Sajith A new cluster based harmonic balance aided optimization procedure with application to nonlinear vibration absorbers “ J. Computational and . Nonlinear Dynamics, (2019);doi: 10.1115/1.4043527
- 2.Premchand V.P., M. D. Narayanan and A. S. Sajith.“Parameter analysis and estimation of belt conveyor system ”, Proceedings of the 1st International and 18th ISME Conference NIT Warangal Feb 21-23 2017
- Premchand V.P., M. D. Narayanan and A. S. Sajith.“Cluster based algorithm applied in design of stock bridge dampers, with experimental validations ”, Proceedngs of INCAM 2019 Conference, 3-5 July 2019, IISc Bangalore.
- Premchand V P, Narayanan M D, Sajith A S Parameter estimation and analysis of vibration absorbers with nonlinear spring .”National conference on Applied Nonlinear Dynamics“, NIT Warangal December 21-23 2016
- Premchand V P, Bipin Balaram , Narayanan M D, Sajith A S A novel optimization strategy to estimate optimal stable periodic orbits in nonlinear systems. (Under review in Engineering Optimization, Taylor and Francis )
- Abhijith R.V., Aditya V.N., Gandhilal J.K. , Premchand V.P. and Rajeevnath S.”Mechanical Aid for Stroke Rehabilitation” INCAM 2019 Conference, 3-5 July 2019, IISc Bangalore.
- Abhijith R.V. , Aditya V.N. , Gandhilal J.K. , Premchand V.P. and Rajeevnath S. “Dynamic orthotic for spastic hands “ ICMPT 2019 Conference, IIT Chennai
- 8. V.P. Premchand, K.S. Sajikumar, Fracture analysis in adhesive bonded joints with centre crack. NCTT-09 10th National Conference on Technological trends, Trivandrum, India (2009)
ISTE Life Time Member
Teaching: 10 years
Research: 8 years